TRAINING – (There is no optimal rep range for muscle growth. When equating for total volume, low reps work just as well as high reps for hypertrophy). – (There is no best rep range for muscle growth when volume is equated) – (Using compound exercises alone was just as effective as using compound + isolation exercises) – (Using compound exercises alone was just as effective as using compound + isolation exercises). – (There is no significant difference in muscle gains from training in the morning vs. the evening) – (Daily undulating periodization elicited much greater strength gains than linear periodization) – (Daily undulating periodization elicited greater strength gains than linear periodization could) – (Periodization resulted in better strength, performance, and muscle gains in female athletes than non-periodized training) – (Non-linear periodized training increased strength much better than linear periodized training) – (Non linear periodazation yielded better strength gains and muscle growth than linear periodization) – (Daily undulating periodization was superior on all outcome measures [hypertrophy and strength] vs. non periodized training, however these differences did not reach statistical significance). – (Contrary to other research, periodization did not have a superior effect on hypertrophy vs. no periodization. Duration of the study was rather short however) – (Non-linear periodized may be more effective than linear periodized) – (A meta-analysis showing that periodized training [cycling rep ranges] is superior to non-periodized training) – (A combination of rep ranges yielded more muscle growth than the use of the same rep ranges) – (Cycling rep ranges is recommended for maximal strength gains. 2 training sessions per day is also suggested as being superior than 1 session per day) – (Training using fast repetitions result in better muscular performance in regards to power, than slow repetitions.) – (Fast repetitions were greater for peak power output than slow repetitions) – (Fast repetitions are better for strength and hypertrophy than slow repetitions) – (Fast repetitions produced greater strength in all performance tests than super slow repetitions.) – (Compound movements are much more effective for strength and hypertrophy vs. isolation movements) – (Traditional set-rep training is equal to pyramid training for mass and strength gain). – (Training 4 – 5 days per week appears to be optimal for strength gain and muscle mass vs. other training frequencies) – (Training 4 days a week vs. 6 days a week produces similar results in muscle growth) – (Full range of motion elicits more muscle damage than partial ROM) – (Full range of motion is superior for muscle gain than partial ROM) – (Full range of motion is superior for strength and muscle gain vs. partial ROM) – (Neural factors are a large determinant of strength gain) – (Subjects who performed 25 – 35 repetitions per exercise achieved the same muscle growth as those who performed 8 – 12 repetitions per exercise) – (Subjects who trained in a 23 – 25 rep range experienced similar muscle growth to subjects training in a 3 – 5 range and a 13 – 15 rep range) – (A low load [30% 1RM]  lifted to failure produced the same muscle growth as a high load [80% 1RM] lifted to failure) – (A low load [30% 1RM]  lifted to failure produced the same muscle growth as a high load [80% 1RM] lifted to failure. As expected, the high load group gained significantly more strength). – (Suggests that maximal motor units can be recruited with very light loads [30% 1RM] if trained to failure) – (Even 15% 1RM was enough stimulus to cause muscle growth) – (Loads under 50% 1RM can produce significant gains in muscle growth, just as long as they are trained to failure) – (Substantial muscle growth can be achieved even when using loads under 60% of 1RM. However higher loads tended to produce slightly better growth than low loads) – (Meta analysis reveals better muscle growth with higher training frequencies) – (Higher training frequency = more muscle growth) – (Training a muscle group 3 times per week yields better growth than training it once per week, even when the volume is held constant) – (Muscle groups should be trained a minimum of twice per week) – (2 years of strength training produced a sustained increase in resting testosterone levels) – (10 weeks of strength training produced a sustained increase in total testosterone levels) – (4 weeks of strength training produced a sustained increase in resting testosterone levels) – (Strength training increases resting metabolic rate) – (Strength training increases resting metabolic rate) – (Meta Analysis revealed that multiple sets are most effective for strength gain vs. single sets.) – (Meta analysis reveals muscle growth increases dose dependently on weekly training volume. 10 sets per week produced the greatest amount of growth vs. 5-9 sets or < 5 sets). – (Strength and hypertrophy increased dose-dependently on training volume) – (Low load, high volume training induces a much greater anabolic effect than high load, low volume training) – (Anabolic signaling is increased dose-dependently on training volume) – (High volume training involving compound movements is recommended for maximum muscle gain) – (Suggests that high volume training may even be better for maximal strength than other training volumes) – (High volume training was superior for leg hypertrophy vs. low volume training) – (Multiple sets produced greater hypertrophy than single sets did) – (Multiple sets produce much greater hypertrophy effects than a single set of exercise) – (Multiple sets produced greater hypertrophy and strength of the legs than single sets) – (Multiple sets produced greater hypertrophy than single sets did) – (Multiple sets produce better strength results than single sets) – (Multiple sets produce greater muscle protein synthesis than single sets) – (Multiple sets produced much greater gains in muscular performance than single set training) – (Multiple sets produced better strength and muscle mass in the legs than single sets) – (High training volume was more effective for strength gain and testosterone levels than low training volume to failure). – (There were no differences in muscle gain between training each body part 2 times per week vs. 3 times per week.) – (Short rest periods between sets produces greater HGH output, however longer rest periods produce better strength performance during training) – (3 minute rest periods were superior for strength and muscle gain vs. 1 minute rest periods). – (Shorter rest periods do not result in greater muscle hypertrophy than longer rest periods). – (Longer rest periods promote more training volume and intensity than do shorter rest periods) – (1 minute rest periods blunt protein synthesis and anabolic signalling vs. 5 minute rest periods) – (2.5 minutes between sets produced greater thigh muscle growth vs. 30 seconds between sets during low-load resistance training) – (Testosterone significantly increased through intensive training)

Stoppani, J. Encyclopedia of Muscle and Strength. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 2006. pp. 151 – (Over 200 muscles are activated during the squat) – (Endurance training combined with strength training can negatively affect strength and muscle gain) – (Endurance training negatively affects strength gains from weight training) – (Short term overreaching can be recovered by incorporating a deload week) – (Low rep ranges with longer rest periods are superior for enhancing 1RM strength) – (Lower body closed chain exercises put less stress on the knees than open chain exercises) – (Squats produce twice as much hamstring activation than does the leg press.) – (Closed chain exercises were far more effective in improving athletic performance than open chain exercises) – (Closed chain exercises provide greater balance of quadricep activation than open chained exercises) – (Lifting to failure is not necessary for muscle growth) – (Not training to failure was just as effective for power output as training to failure was. Training to failure also increased cortisol and decreased testosterone levels) – (Set durations of 0.5 – 8 seconds produce similar results in muscle growth. Set durations greater than 10 seconds is less effective at inducing hypertrophy) – (Abdominal training does NOT decrease fat mass in the abdominal region. In other words, doing hundreds of sit ups a day won’t make you see abs. Having very low body-fat will.) – (Doing cardio before strength training compromises the amount of reps performed during lifting by up to 20%) – (Suggests that training twice every other day is superior to training once everyday) – (Doing two training sessions per day was superior for hypertrophy than training once per day – even when total training volume is equal). – (Active recovery significantly slows the drop of white blood cells post-training) – (Active recovery produced much greater lactate removal than massage and total rest did) – (Active recovery produces significant decreases in lactid acid in the muscle post-workout) – (Active recovery produces significant decreases in lactic acid, and thus, greater power output between sets of hard training) – (Active recovery produces much better mood states days after intense competition than does total rest) – (Bone density is significantly greater in weightlifters vs. non weightlifters) – (Cortisol release was shown to actually correlate to better gains in muscle growth during intense exercise. This is contrary to the belief that cortisol release during training will break down your muscles). – (While the results did not reach ‘statistical significance’, the research showed that after 10 weeks, subjects who trained in the evening gained 0.8% more muscle mass than morning-trained subjects). – (Strength performance and Testosterone to Cortisol ratios are highest in the evening. Thereby suggesting the evening as an optimal time to train). – (Suggests that your body will adapt to function at it’s peak when trained at the same time each day. In other words, you will train at your best when you train at the same time period that you are used to). – (Massage therapy improves performance and recovery time in bodybuilders) – (Motor unit activation did not differ between bench press and dumbbell press) – (Pectoral activation was similar between barbell bench press and dumbbell press, however tricep activation was higher in barbell press whereas biceps activation was higher in dumbbell press. Barbell press allowed for greater weight to be used) – (Focusing/visualizing on a specific muscle group while lifting increased the activation of that muscle when the weigh was under 60% 1RM). – (Verbal instruction to isolate a muscle group during a lift is very effective, however only when lighter weight is used) – (Chest pressing off of an unstable surface resulted in NO difference than pressing off of a standard bench) – (Training on unstable surfaces decreases the amount of weight you are able to move, thus decreasing muscle activation). – (Bench pressing on an unstable surface decreased muscle strength in major lifts. Again demonstrating a sacrifice in weight moved in favour of an unstable surface). – (Glutamine supplementation had no positive effects on muscle mass or strength over a 6 week period) – (Well- trained subjects did not lose much of their gains when de-training for 32 weeks. Their strength and mass returned quite rapidly just after 6 weeks of re-training, thus providing merit to the notion of “muscle memory”) – (Long-term resistance training improves cognition and memory in the elderly) – (Training each muscle group multiple times per week is superior than just once per week, even when weekly training volume is equal) – (Ice baths appear to impair the hypertrophic response after strength training) – (Muscle gains can be maintained with just 1/3 of the training volume that they were attained with) – (Muscle activation was greater during squats with resistance bands vs. squats alone) – (Lifting in an explosive manner dramatically increases energy expenditure vs/ lifting slow and controlled). – (Ballistic movements [ie. plyometrics] significantly recruit type ll fast twitch muscle fibers) – (Lat activation is virtually identical between lat pull-downs and chin-ups, however biceps activation is significantly greater in chin-ups than in pull-downs). – (100 bodyweight squats per day led to an increase in muscle mass, vertical jump, and muscular strength) – (Heavy resistance training improves peddling performance in cyclists) – (Resistance training improved running economy in marathon runners) – (There is no difference between crunch and leg raise for activating the abdominal muscles. Interestingly, neither exercise targeted a particular quadrant of the abdominals more than the other) – (Strengthening the core muscles prevented previously reported lower back pain in gymnasts) – (Partial squats were highly effective at increasing 1RM strength during the course of a training cycle) – (Acute elevations of protein synthesis post-workout is not correlated to long term muscle growth) – (concurrent training does not affect muscle growth in novice lifters, however as the lifter becomes more advanced, concurrent training will hinder muscle gains) – (5 steps to improving your lifting program) – (Tapering from training [lowering volume but maintaining intensity] resulted in an increase in strength, where as total abandonment of training resulted in strength decreases within 4 weeks after completing a 16 week training program) – (In the standard push-up, approx 70% of bodyweight is supported on the hands in the ‘up’ position, with 75% of BW supported during the ‘down’ position) – (Mild dehydration resulted in significant performance decrements in weight training) – (Change in muscle size was directly correlated to change in muscular strength) – (Muscle size appears to be the strongest predictor of muscle strength) – (Meta analysis reveals eccentric training being superior for muscle growth and strength than concentric training, however, this was probably due to the higher training intensities that eccentric training allows) – (Contrary to popular belief, the use of moderate momentum during lifting provides a better anabolic stimulus due to a greater amount of peak torque that it allows) – (There were no differences in body composition after 10 weeks of squatting vs. leg pressing. Squat performance improved most in the squat group, where as both groups equally improved in leg press strength. No differences were seen in vertical jumping ability between groups) – (Focusing on the muscle at lighter intensities increases muscle activation – ie. the mind-muscle connection may be legit) – (Front and back squats activate the abdominals to a similar extent, however front squats are superior at activating the erector spinae) – (Demonstrates the extreme variability among individuals regarding their response to resistance training. Muscle growth increases over the training period ranged from -0.2% to +59%) – (Squatting every day for 37 consecutive days resulted in huge increases in squat strength in elite level powerlifters)


H.I.I.T. (HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING) – (High intensity aerobic training resulted in a 2-fold increase of HGH over a 24 hour period). – (HIIT is superior for fat loss than steady state cardio) – (HIIT produced much greater fat loss than steady state cardio, and even produced increases in trunk muscle mass) – (HIIT decreased abdominal fat by 44%, increased mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area by 24%, and improved insulin sensitivity by 58%) – (HIIT is superior to steady state cardio for body composition and cardiovascular fitness) – (HIIT was superior to steady state cardio for cardiovascular fitness) – (HIIT combined with gym training produced greater fat loss than gym training alone, with overall training volume being equal in both groups). – (HIIT is better for endurance and metabolism than steady state cardio) – (HIIT is better for aerobic capacity than steady state cardio) – (HIIT leads to increased aerobic and anaerobic performance in young athletes) – (HIIT is significantly better for aerobic capacity, body composition, and metabolic rate post workout than steady state cardio). – (6 weeks of HIIT improves training power output by 21% and has a pronounced effect on fat oxidation) – (Just 2 weeks of HIIT improved insulin sensitivity by 23%)


DIET – (Everything about calories and weight loss) – (Energy balance and obesity) – (Protein requirements for resistance training) – (Protein considerations for maximizing muscle growth) – (Protein quality and hypertrophy) – (Dietary protein is absorbed in the body at a rate of 1.3 – 10 grams/hour, and a suggested maximum amount of daily protein consumption is roughly 1 g/lb of bodyweight). – (There are no harmful effects of a high protein diet on health markers) – (After 12  weeks of resistance training, the subjects who consumed animal protein gained muscle mass, where as the subjects who consumed vegetarian protein lost muscle mass) – Older adults are less sensitive to protein doses, and require ~40 grams of protein to maximize the synthetic response, compared to 20 grams for younger individuals) – (Whey protein is rapidly absorbed by the gut, where as casein is absorbed at a much slower, more prolonged rate. Net leucine balance was greater with casien over 7 hours than with whey over 7 hours) – (Digestion of a 600 calorie meal composed of 75 g carbs and 37 g protein was still incomplete after 5 hours) – (It is suggested that strength trainers consume about 0.8 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight). – (0.8 g/lb of protein is recommended to maximize muscle growth) – (A high protein diet (1.5 g/lb) may accelerate fat loss during resistance training vs. a ‘normal’ protein diet) – (A high protein intake results in gains in muscle mass even in a caloric deficit). – (A high protein intake resulted in muscle gains while in a caloric deficit) – (There were no differences in performance in elite level gymnasts when adhering to a ketogenic or normal carb diet. The ketogenic diet led to a decrease in fat mass with a slight increase in LBM, though calories were less on the keto diet.) – (High protein is crucial for retention of muscle mass during calorie restriction) – (High protein diets [up to 1.5 g/lb] pose zero health risks over a 16 week period) – (Eating up to 2 grams of protein per pound does not further enhance muscle growth vs. a modest protein intake) – (Subjects consuming an extremely low protein diet [0.4 g/kg] maintained their skeletal muscle mass and protein synthesis rates over a 3 month period. This suggests an adaptive response to extremely low protein diets, however, resistance training was not included in the study) – (A minimum of 20 grams of protein is needed to maximize protein synthesis after strength training). – (when calories are equal, there is no difference in weight loss between low carb and high carb diets) – (When calories are equal, there is no difference in weight loss between keto diets and high carb diets) – (meta analysis reveals that when calories are equal, there is no advantage of low carb diet for weight loss over the long term) – (when calories and protein are equal, there is no difference in weight loss and health markers between a low carb diet and a high carb diet) – (when calories are equal, there is no difference in weight loss between low carb and high carb diets) – (Ketogenic diets are completely safe over the long-term) – (Higher protein intake is correlated to higher metabolic rate) – (High protein diets are best for satiety and improving body composition) – (Protein is the most satiating macronutrient) – (High protein diets are better for fat loss than moderate protein diets) – (When post-workout protein consumption is of an optimal amount, adding carbs to the mix has no effect on muscle breakdown or protein synthesis). – (Optimal protein intake is essential for wound healing and immune function) – (Saturated fat poses NO risk of cardiovascular disease, contrary to what people think) – (the correlation between saturated fat and cardiovascular disease may be explained by low fiber intake) – (Summary: “Diverse healthy populations experience no risk in developing coronary heart disease by increasing their intake of cholesterol but, in contrast, they may have multiple beneficial effects by the inclusion of eggs in their regular diet”) – (Dietary cholesterol is not related to coronary heart disease or mortality across populations) – (Egg consumption raised HDL cholesterol but did not affect LDL cholesterol) – (Additional egg intake raised HDL cholesterol levels but did not affect LDL levels). – (Additional egg consumption does not increase the risk of heart disease in the elderly population) – (The association between dietary cholesterol and coronary heart disease is “if anything, minor in nature”). – (Increasing egg intake over a 12-week period did not raise LDL cholesterol) – (The association between dietary cholesterol and heart disease is extremely minimal. There was also no association between an additional egg per day and heart disease). – (Protein requirements may go as high as 1.4 g/lb of LBM to preserve muscle mass during calorie restriction) – (High protein consumption negated muscle loss during calorie restriction) – (High protein diets are best for muscle mass retention during calorie deficits) – (High protein diets are effective at reducing muscle loss during calorie restriction) – (High protein diets are effective at reducing muscle loss during calorie restriction) – (There were no differences in body composition when subjects ate mainly simple carbs vs. complex carbs). – (Drinking water raised metabolic rate in subjects by 30% for up to 40 minutes following ingestion) – (Drinking water boosted metabolism in subjects by 24% over 60 minutes following ingestion) – (Drinking water increased metabolism by 25% for up to one hour in overweight children) – (Moderate alcohol consumption over 3 weeks only lowered testosterone by 6.8%). – (Extreme alcohol consumption decreased testosterone by 23% and decreases HGH output at sleep) – (Moderate alcohol consumption improves insulin sensitivity) – (Moderate alcohol consumption improves insulin sensitivity, possibly through stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase) – (Moderate alcohol intoxication had no impact on training performance or on muscular integrity) – (Saturated fat contributes to insulin resistance where as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat increases insulin sensitivity) – (Whey protein isolate produced significantly superior muscle and strength gains than casein protein) – (Tribulis Terrestris had NO effect on muscle size or strength gains after 5 weeks of use) – (Whole foods composed of complex carbs contain many more nutrients than processed foods, have a higher thermic effect than processed foods, and take longer to digest than processed foods). – (Dietary recommendations for natural bodybuilding) – (CLA supplementation has no impact on body composition) – (Vitamin D and its role in muscle function) – (Meta analysis reveals that diet has the biggest impact on weight loss, however exercise has a bigger impact on reducing abdominal fat). – (When calories are controlled, sugar has no effect on weight gain or weight loss. It is also highly questionable that sugar is addictive or that it leads to cardiovascular disease). – (There is no evidence that sugar causes obesity or CVD. Furthermore, the notion that complex carbohydrates increase energy expenditure more than simple carbohydrates is untrue).


CREATINE – (Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men) – (Creatine supplementation improved bench press 1RM, as well as increased body weight and fat-free mass in participants) – (Creatine supplementation improved strength in subjects) – (Meta analysis shows that creatine supplementation increases muscle mass and strength in the elderly). – (Shows significant positive effects of creatine supplementation on strength and weightlifting performance) – (Creatine supplementation increased bench press strength 30% more than placebo group: 64% vs. 34%) – (More muscle growth occurred during creatine-supplemented sessions vs. non-supplemented sessions) – (A month of continuous of Creatine Nitrate supplementation is perfectly safe) – (Long-term creatine supplementation [8 weeks] posed NO health consequences in college football players) – (Long-term creatine supplementation [21 months] yields NO negative health consequences compared to athletes who do not take creatine. Therefore this study suggests that long-term usage of creatine does not result in any adverse effects). – (Long term creatine use [up to 4 years] yields no adverse effects) – (Taking creatine POST-workout was superior to taking it pre-workout) – (Creatine supplementation significantly increased fat-free mass) – (Creatine supplementation appears to have no impact on endurance exercise, however some studies refute this) – (Creatine supplementation does not appear to have any effect on reducing muscle damage or soreness from heavy exercise) – (Creatine supplementation significantly increased power output in handball players) – (Creatine supplementation may be effective in combating age-related diseases) – (Division 1A football players who used creatine had a significantly less incidence of muscle cramps and injury compared to players who did not use creatine) – (A thorough overview of Creatine) – (There is no scientific evidence that indicates creatine as being unsafe, or causing any harmful side effects). – (Short term creatine supplementation improved performance and increased testosterone levels in amateur swimmers) – (Subjects who ingested creatine trended to have higher testosterone levels than subjects who were given placebo) – (Buffered creatine is not more effective than creatine monohydrate) – (Great review of Diet Induced Thermogenesis)


FISH OIL – (Fish oil significantly increases fat-free mass and decreases fat mass) – (Fish oil stimulates fat oxidation) – (Fish oil reduces body fat and improved good cholesterol) – (Fish oil significantly reduces triglycerides) – (Inclusion of fish oil and seafood into a weight loss diet accelerated fat loss vs. no fish supplementation) – (Fish oil appears to limit fat cell growth in rodents) – (Fish oil supplementation among infant boys resulted in higher IGF-1) – (Fish oil increased metabolic rate by 14% and resting fat oxidation by 19% in elderly females) – (Meta analysis revealed that fish oil did not reduce total bodyweight in subjects, however it is effective at reducing abdominal fat.) – (Fish oil increases muscle volume and strength in the elderly) – (Fish oil reduces muscle soreness after resistance training)


INTERMITTENT FASTING – (Eating breakfast has no positive effect on brain functioning in children) – (There is no concrete evidence that breakfast eating causes better weight management) – (Fasting 16 hours a day when combined with resistance training resulted in similar [slightly greater] muscle growth compared to eating regularly)  – (Fasting does not have a negative effect on metabolism) – (Meal frequency has no impact on metabolism) – (Fasting actually led to an increase in metabolic rate) – (Long term Fasting increases metabolic rate. Completely contrary to how people think that it slows metabolic rate). – (Intermittent fasting resulted in greater loss of body fat than daily calorie restriction) – (Frequent meals are not better for weight loss) – (Frequent meals are not better for weight loss) – (Frequent meals do not produce higher 24 hour energy expenditure or fat oxidation) – (Increased meal frequency led to an increase in triglycerides and abdominal fat, where as reduced meal frequency did not) – (Alternate day fasting produces similar weight loss to daily calorie restriction, however ADF appears to retain lean body mass much better than daily calorie restriction does) – (Elderly subjects consuming most of their daily protein in one large meal experienced better protein synthesis than when consuming protein through spread out meals) – (Consuming the majority of daily protein one meal had no effect on protein retention) – (The frequency of protein ingestion made no difference in regards to muscle mass, or fat mass). – (70 grams of protein resulted in greater whole body protein synthesis vs 40 grams of protein). – (Fasting may increase insulin sensitivity) – (Fasted training increases insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance significantly better than fed training) – (Intermittent Fasting enhances growth hormone secretion) – (Intermittent Fasting Increased Serum Testosterone by 180%) – (Fasting may prevents brain disease) – (Fasting helps protect against Alzheimer’s and other neuro-degenerative diseases) – Fasted training enhanced glycogen re-synthesis 3 times more than fed training) – (Fasting enhanced HGH secretion) – (Enhanced growth hormone secretion during a 22 hour fast) – (2 days of fasting produced a 5 fold increase in HGH output) – (2 days of fasting produced a 4 fold increase in HGH output in older men) – (Fasting prevents the growth of cancer cells) – (Fasting increases the lifespan of rodents and monkeys) – (Fasted training does not negatively affect performance) – (Ramadan fasting reduced fat mass and retained lean mass in trained Rugby players) – (Isometric strength and aerobic endurance is not negatively affected even after 3.5 days of fasting. Isokinetic strength was reduced by 10%) – (There is no difference between high intensity interval training in a fasted state vs. a fed state. Thereby debunking the myth that doing intense exercise in a fasted state will burn muscle). – (There was no difference between weight training in a fasted vs. a fed state in regards to body composition in muslim bodybuilders. Thereby also dispelling the ‘fasted training will burn muscle’ myth). – (Ramadan fasting does not negatively affect training performance if energy intake, macros, sleep duration, and training load are all kept intact). – (Full Text, Results: “Body fat percentage and total body water content of were altered significantly during the first week of fasting as compared with values observed before the beginning of fasting. Muscle mass was unaffected.) – (Large evening meals preserve muscle mass better than large morning meals) – (Greater fat loss when most carbs are consumed in the evening) – (Fasting increases norepinephrine levels) – (Fasting increases norepinephrine levels, as well as metabolic rate) – (Norepinephrine plays a vital role in the treatment of depression. [Norepinephrine is increased through fasting]). – (Ramadan fasting decreased fat mass and sleep duration; and significantly improved cognitive performance in subjects) – (Intermittent Fasting protects the heart from oxidative damage) – (Intermittent Fasting suppresses the growth of tumor cells) – (Intermittent Fasting may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes) – (Intermittent Fasting has a significant positive effect on brain plasticity) – (Intermittent Fasting reduces risk of a variety of metabolic diseases) – (Intermittent Fasting may have a positive effect on the treatment of epilepsy) – (Intermittent Fasting is effective in combating intestinal bacteria from Salmonella infection in mice) – (Intermittent Fasting is effective in providing neurological protection to ischemic stroke in mice) – (Intermittent Fasting provides increased neurological resistance to excitotoxic stress in mice ) – (Intermittent Fasting significantly improved mood scores in ageing men) – (Intermittent Fasting is effective in preventing metabolic cardiovascular disease, as well oxidative stress and inflammation) – (Intermittent Fasting can prevent the spreading of cancer cells) – (Intermittent Fasting increases life span and decreases risk of brain disease) – (Intermittent fasting has been shown in humans to increase the gene SIRT3, which is responsible for extending the lifespan) – (SIRT3 is responsible for regulating ageing and extending the lifespan. Fasting has been shown to increase this gene in the body). – (Intermittent fasting induces autophagy [cellular recycling]). – (Intermittent Fasting greatly improves asthma-related symptoms in humans) – (The absorption of a standard 600 calorie meal composed of 37 g protein and 75 g carbs is still incomplete after 5 hours. Therefore consuming larger high protein meals would still keep the body ‘anabolic’ for hours and hours after ingestion). – (New study demonstrates that IF via dinner skipping resulted in greater 24 hour fat oxidation and less hunger pangs. Protein oxidation also increased however)


PROTEIN TIMING & THE “ANABOLIC WINDOW’ – (Waiting at least 3 hours to ingest a meal post-workout did not negatively affect muscle growth or strength over a 10 week training period) – (The “anabolic window” lasts for at least 24 hours) – (Rate of protein synthesis is 109% higher after 24 hours of training, and returns back to baseline at 36 hours) – (Net muscle protein balance is still positive even after 48 hours post-workout) – (Consuming post-workout nutrition 3 hours after training produced the same effects as consuming it 1 hour after). – (Total daily protein intake is the overriding factor in hypertrophy, not the timing of protein intake) – (Again showing that total daily protein intake is the overriding factor for hypertrophy; not protein timing) – (“The additive effects of resistance-type exercise and protein ingestion on myofibrillar protein synthesis persist for >12 h after exercise and are not modulated by protein consumption during acute post-exercise recovery.”)


HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE – (HGH improves brain regeneration in rats) – (Exogenous HGH significantly decreased fat mass in elderly subjects. Did not improve physical performance). – (Excellent review on HGH) – (Exogenous HGH may have a protective effect on muscle tissue during calorie restriction) – (HGH and sleep) – (HGH is primarily secreted during the onset of sleep. Its secretion is reduced 2 to 3 fold past the age of 30) – (HGH has a significant affect on the mobilization of fatty acids. This effect is suppressed by the ingestion of food) – (HGH is a potent mobilizer of fat. The GH release was strongly suppressed by the ingestion of glucose).;jsessionid=709BE3A705F9807C53CE83CF42D030DE.f01t01 – (HGH has a direct effect on fat mobilization + free fatty acids) – (Free fatty acids block HGH secretion) – (Exogenous HGH improved bone density and decreased fat mass in HGH-deficient subjects) – (Exogenous HGH increased bone density in HGH-deficient subjects) – (HGH increases collagen metabolism, bone turnover and bone density) – (HGH significantly increases calcium absorption and Ca retention in sheep) – (HGH increases bone mass) – (HGH stimulates bone turnover and bone density) – (HGH had a positive effect on calcium concentration and phosphate concentration rates in elderly women with osteoporosis) – (Total HGH secretion is highly dependent on age, body fat percentage, and fitness levels, especially in males) – (HGH secretion is highly dependent on age) – (Exogenous Growth Hormone increases extracellular fluid in muscle, does not increase power or strength in athletes) – (Exogenous HGH significantly reduces fat, but has minor effect on isometric strength. It significantly increased exercise capacity). – (HGH does not promote muscle growth at the cellular level. Thereby supporting the notion that increases in lean body mass from GH are likely due to extracellular fluid and connective tissue). – (Exogenous HGH does not increase strength or muscle mass, even when combined with resistance training) – (Exogenous HGH increases lean body mass, however it does not increase muscle size or strength. Again demonstrating that increases in mass from GH is mostly due to connective tissue and fluid retention). – (Exogenous HGH significantly increased lean body mass and decreased fat mass in HGH-deficient subjects) – (Exogenous HGH had no effect on strength and body composition in highly trained athletes. Suggests that it only has effect on HGH deficient individuals. Program only lasted 6 weeks however). – (REVIEW: HGH does not increase strength in healthy subjects). – (HGH is increased through a high protein diet) – (HGH is increased through Arginine and Ornithine supplementation)


TESTOSTERONE – (Socially dominant males have significantly higher testosterone levels than males who are non-dominant) – (High testosterone results in better mating success) – (2 years of strength training produced a sustained increase in resting testosterone levels) – (10 weeks of strength training produced a sustained increase in total testosterone levels) – (4 weeks of strength training produced a sustained increase in resting testosterone levels) – (Testosterone levels are suppressed after ingesting food) – (Every time your insulin levels increase, your testosterone levels decrease) – (Muscle mass increased dose-dependently on testosterone levels)– (Muscle mass increased with testosterone levels [in the physiological range]) – (Strength is increased dose-dependently with testosterone levels) – (Testosterone doses of 1046 ng/dl and 898 ng/dl were necessary for increasing muscle mass. Note that these levels are within the natural physiological range) – (Individuals in the top 2 quartiles of natural T levels had more muscle mass and less fat than individuals in the bottom quartile of testosterone production. Correlational yet highly intriguing). – (Aging lowers testosterone) – (Decreasing your calorie intake suppresses testosterone levels) – (Testosterone treatment directly increases protein synthesis) – (Testosterone treatment decreases fat mass and improves well-being in obese men) – (Testosterone inhibits the creations of fat cells) – (Achieving higher status results in higher testosterone) – (Higher testosterone levels significantly improve exercise capacity and strength) – (High testosterone increases well-being) – (Higher testosterone results in increased libido and visuospatial cognition performance in older men) – (Winning is shown to increase testosterone) – (Succeeding increased testosterone) – (Calisthenics increased testosterone) – Abstaining from ejaculation increases serum testosterone by 145% on the 7th day of abstinence) – (Couples had higher testosterone on days when they had sex vs. days where they did not have sex) – (There is a strong correlation between testosterone levels and frequency of sexual activity) – (Testosterone causes erections as a function of sexual desire) – (Relationship commitment and sexual physicality is correlated to higher testosterone in women) – (Free testosterone is a strong predictor of sexual behaviour) – (Testosterone therapy rapidly improves mood and body composition in hypogonadal men) – (Testosterone reduces fear in humans) – (Higher testosterone is correlated with not giving up after initially losing) – (Zinc supplementation is significantly correlated to increased testosterone) – (Sleep loss reduces testosterone levels) – (Sleep restriction lowers testosterone levels) – (Testosterone decreases sleep need in men) – (Low testosterone is associated with poor sleep quality) – (Testosterone is heavily produced during REM sleep) – (Young men secrete far more testosterone than middle aged men) – (Doing cardio before strength training rather than after significantly increases testosterone) – (Vitamin D supplementation is shown to significantly increase testosterone levels) – (Selenium is correlated with increased testosterone and fertility) – (Zinc and Selenium supplementation significantly increased testosterone) – (While this study is wrong about HDL being related to risk of heart attack, it demonstrates that high HDL (good cholesterol levels) is significantly correlated with higher testosterone) – (HDL cholesterol is positively correlated to total testosterone) – (HDL cholesterol is positively correlated to testosterone) – (ZMA increased testosterone by 30% in subjects) – (Testosterone significantly decreased fat and increased muscle size, strength and aerobic capacity in older men. The addition of HGH further enhanced these outcomes). – (Testosterone levels are significantly decreased with obesity) – (High fat diets significantly increase testosterone vs. low fat diets) – (High fat diets increase testosterone and low fat diets decrease testosterone) – (Decreasing dietary fat intake will decrease testosterone) – (Diets high in soy dramatically decreased testosterone in healthy men) – (Soy consumption drastically decreases testosterone) – (Moderate alcohol consumption over 3 weeks only lowered testosterone by 6.8%).


MINDSET – (Having high self-esteem allows you to attack your goals without being afraid of failure) – (The value of auto-suggestion) – (Why you need to make $75k a year) – (Positive self-talk improves performance on endurance tasks) – (Positive self-talk improved dart throwing ability significantly more than negative self-talk) – (Motivational self-talk blocks interfering thoughts and improves performance in water polo tasks) – (Implementation of positive self-talk techniques provide immediate improved performance in female tennis players) – (Positive self-talk significantly improved performance in basketball shooting) – (Positive self-talk and visualization significantly improves basketball performance) – (Positive self-talk significantly improved shooting in female soccer players) – (Positive self-talk and centering improved performance in hockey goaltenders)


LIFESTYLE – (Men with a V-shaped torso or “inverted triangle” torso are most attractive to women) – (More muscle mass is correlated to more sexual partners) – (Aerobic fitness results in better cognitive functioning) – (Aerobic fitness may increase hippocampal volume in pre-adolescent children) – (Aerobic fitness increases cognitive performance in teenage subjects) – (Physical fitness significantly increases cognitive performance and psychological well-being) – (Strength training significantly improves mood) – (Sleeping 8 hours a night is correlated to a higher mortality rate than less hours of sleep) – (the range in sleep-need for infants varies widely based on individual differences) – (Core strength training is effective in reducing chronic lower back pain) – (University education earns you more money over your lifetime than less education: students loans are worth it) – (higher education earns you more money than lower education) (degree holders will usually earn more over their lifetime than non-degree holders) – (individuals surveyed who slept 7 hours per night actually lived longer than those who slept 8 hours per night). – (Increased physical activity is associated with lower risk of 13 types of cancer)